CHEM 0011

Introductory Applied Chemistry

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The following table summarizes the solubility ionic compounds in water formed with these common anions . Use this as a guide to predict products of chemical reactions for double-replacement reactions.

Anions
Soluble
Insoluble
Nitrates, NO3
ALL


Acetates, C2H3O2

ALL

Chlorides, Cl

ALL, except …
AgCl, Hg2Cl2, PbCl2
Sulfates, SO42-

ALL*, except …
BaSO4, SrSO4, PbSO4
Salts of group IA

ALL

Salts of ammonium, NH4+

ALL

Acids

ALL

Oxides, O2- Group IA,
Group IIA (Ca, Sr, Ba)

ALL
Hydroxides, OH Group IA,
Group IIA (Ca*, Sr, Ba)

ALL
Sulfides, S2- Group IA, Group IIA, (NH4)2S
ALL

Phosphates, PO43- Group IA, (NH4)3PO4

ALL
Carbonates, CO32- Group IA, (NH4)2CO3

ALL

* Ca(OH)2, CaSO4 are moderately soluble.

The following table shows the activity series for some of the more common metals in order of deceasing reactivity, with the most reactive metal at the top of the list. It should not be surprising to you to find the alkali metals at the top of the list and the more unreactive metals at the bottom of the list.

Use this table to predict single replacement reactions.

This is a reference table and will be available to you in examinations. Do not attempt to memorize this table.

 

Lithium Li Li+ + e
Potassium K K+ + e
Barium Ba Ba2+ + 2 e
Calcium Ca Ca2+ + 2 e
Sodium Na Na+ + e
Magnesium Mg Mg2+ + 2 e
Aluminum Al Al3+ + 3 e
Manganese Mn Mn2+ + 2 e
Zinc Zn Zn2+ + 2 e
Chromium Cr Cr3+ + 3 e
Iron Fe Fe2+ + 2 e
Cobalt Co Co2+ + 2 e
Nickel Ni Ni2+ + 2 e
Tin Sn Sn2+ + 2 e
Lead Pb Pb2+ + 2 e
Hydrogen H2 2 H+ + 2 e
Copper Cu Cu2+ + 2 e
Silver Ag Ag+ + e
Mercury Hg Hg2+ + 2 e
Platinum Pt Pt2+ + 2 e
Gold Au Au3+ + 3 e

General Activity Series For Nonmetals

F2 (Most active)
Cl2
Br2
I2 (Least active)

Chemist’s Tools: Ions to learn

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Names of Polyatomic ions and their Charges

In this course, you will need to learn some polyatomic ions. Be sure to learn their names, formulas and their charges.

Cation: ammonium, NH4+
Anions: nitrate, NO3
acetate, C2H3O2
sulfate, SO42-
hydroxide, OH
phosphate, PO43-
carbonate, CO32-
cyanide, CN
chlorate, ClO3
permanganate, MnO4
chromate, CrO42-
dichromate, Cr2O72-

Hint: Make flash cards for learning the ions – on one side, write the formula, on the other side, write the name.

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