Unit #1Unit #2Unit #3Unit #4Unit #5Unit #6Unit #7Unit #8Unit #9Unit #10
spacerUNIT # 5  
spacerspacerIntroduction
spacerspacerObjectives
spacerspacerReading


spacer5.1 Ionic
spacerBonding

spacerIonic Bonding in Sodium Chloride
spacerIonic Bonding in Magnesium Chloride
spacerProperties of Ionic Compounds
spacer5.2 Covalent
spacerBonding
spacer5.3 Polar Covalent
spacerBonding

spacer5.4 Bond
spacerDipoles

spacer5.5 Electroneg-
spacerativity

spacer5.6 Classification
spacerof Bond Type
spacer5.7 Polarity of
spacerMolecules
spacer5.8 Writing
spacerChemical
spacerFormulae
spacerWriting formulas containing simple ions
spacerWriting formulas containing  polyatomic ions
spacerUsing parentheses in formula writing
spacer5.9 Information in
spacera Chemical
spacerFormula
spacerNumber ratio of atoms
spacerNumber ratio of ions
spacer5.10 Oxidation
spacerNumbers
spacerAssignment of Oxidation Numbers


spacerspacerProblems
spacer1 | 2

Unit #5 COMPOUNDS

5.1 - Ionic Bonding

The chemical forces of attraction that hold atoms or ions together in chemical compounds are called chemical bonds. All chemical bonds result from the simultaneous attraction of one or more electrons by two or more nuclei. In unit 4 we introduced to you two types of chemical bonding.

  1. One type of bond that is observed in metals is metallic bond (section 4.4)
  2. Another type of bond is one that is observed between nonmetals is covalent bond. Specifically, if the bond is between identical nonmetals, then the bond is a nonpolar covalent bond. (section 4.7)

When a substance contains atoms of both metals and nonmetals, the electrons are naturally more attracted to the nonmetals. The nonmetals become negatively charged ions and the metals naturally become positively charged ions. (NOTE: The number of electrons that is gained or lost by the nonmetal and the metal is determined by the octet rule.) An attractive force exists between the oppositely charged ions. The force that keeps the ions held together is the chemical bond called the ionic bond.

Ionic bonding requires a transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal, a process that forms ions. Once these ions are formed, they arrange themselves into a 3-dimensional crystal in the solid state.

Take a look at the arrangement of ions in sodium chloride.

Let's look at the formation of ionic bonds in details in the next section.

Section 6.4
The Ionic Bond ..p124

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