Unit #1Unit #2Unit #3Unit #4Unit #5Unit #6Unit #7Unit #8Unit #9Unit #10
spacerUNIT # 10  
spacerspacerIntroduction
spacerspacerObjectives
spacerspacerReading

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spacer10.1 Properties
spacerof Acids and
spacerBases

spacer10.2 Strong/Weak
spacerAcids

spacer10.3 Strong/Weak
spacerBases

spacer10.4 Neutralization
spacerReactions

spacer10.5 Calculations
spacerInvolving
spacerNeutalization
spacerReactions

spacer10.6 pH & pOH
spacerScales
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spacernextProblems

Unit 10 ACIDS & BASES AND IONIC REACTIONS

10.1 - Properties of Acids and Bases

The table below contrasts between acids and bases:

 
Acids
Bases
Formation of
Acids and Bases

Acids are formed from the reaction of nonmetal oxides with water.

eg: carbonic acid is formed by reacting carbon dioxide with water.

CO2 (g) + H2O (l) H2CO3 (aq)

Bases such as LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH and CsOH can be made by reacting the corresponding alkali metals with water.

eg: 2 Li (s) + H2O (l) 2 LiOH (aq) + H2 (g)

Metal oxides also react with water to form bases.

eg: Na2O (s) + H2O (l) 2 NaOH (aq)

Taste Sour
  • household vinegar (acetic acid)
  • lemon juice, orange juice or citrus fruit juices (citric acid)
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Coca-Cola (contains phosphoric acid)
Bitter
  • Milk of Magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)
  • Maalox antacid
    (Magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide)
Feel concentrated acids can cause skin burn; care should be taken when handling acids concentrated bases can cause skin burn; care should be taken when handling bases;
bases often feel slippery or soapy;
Reaction to Litmus Paper turn blue litmus paper red turn red litmus paper blue
Reactions
  • React with bases to form salt and water (i.e. neutralization reaction, section 8.4)
  • React with metals such as magnesium, zinc, iron to roduce hydrogen gas, H2 (g).
  • React with acids to form salt and water (i.e. neutralization reaction, section 8.4)
Examples
  • car battery (sulfuric acid)
  • stomach acid (hydrochloric acid)
  • carbonate water (carbonic acid)
  • drain cleaner, oven cleaner (sodium hydroxide)
  • cleaning products (ammonia solution)

 

Section 15.1
Properties and Definitions of Acids and Bases ..p406

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